STDs/STIs leads to infertility mainly when they are left untreated in most cases. Chlamydia and gonorrhoea are the two major sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) that causes infertility. Both diseases can be easily treated with antibiotics but many people may not know about them because of the lack of noticeable symptoms. Women showing symptoms may experience abdominal or pelvic pain, spotting, and unusual discharge. When chlamydia and gonorrhoea left untreated, they spread to the uterus or fallopian tubes causing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which leads to inflammation, scarring, and blockage in the reproductive organs, such as the fallopian tubes. Tubal scarring can block the fallopian tubes which prevent the eggs from traveling to the uterus. Women who have damage to their fallopian tubes are also at risk for ectopic pregnancy.
In vitro fertilization (IVF) is an effective form of fertility treatment for women who have had damage to their fallopian tubes due to STDs. During IVF, sperm and egg are combined in the lab to allow for fertilization outside of the body with subsequent transfer of the embryo back into the uterus.